Shipping Terms   
 

Shipping Terms

Accessorial charges:
additional charges assigned by trucking companies for services considered to be outside the origin scope.

 

Air-ride trailer:
trailers that ride on airbags that are positioned between the axle and the trailer; airbag compresses and decompresses to absorb vibration from road, so trailer stays level and cargo is unaffected.

 

Backhaul carrier:
carrier that picks up goods from a region they are not domiciled out of, but is consigned to the area in which goods are.

 

Berth:
a term used to describe a steam ship that has pulled into port but is anchored and waiting to dock so that it can be discharged (unloaded).

 

Bill of lading (BOL):
document that is the contract carriage between the shipper and carrier.

 

Blanket-wrap transportation:
when merchandise that is required to ship is not protected by cartons or shrink-wrapping but instead exposed. This type of transportation requires additional equipment to transport safely such as blankets, pads, straps, etc…

 

Break bulk:
the separation of consolidated, bulk load into individual, smaller shipments for delivery to the ultimate consignee.

 

Break Points:
mathematical weight point, after which it becomes less expensive for the client to pay for a delivery at the next higher weight classification, which will also be a lower weight. For example 0-500lbs at one price, and 501-1000lbs at slightly less expensive rate.

 

Broker:
an intermediary between the shipper and the carrier who arranges transportation.

 

Cartage:
same as delivery.

 

COD:
cash on delivery.

 

Collect billing:
freight charges are paid by consignee.

 

Consign:
to transfer to another's custody or charge.

 

Consigneer:
the receiver of a freight shipment.

 

Consignor:
the sender of a freight shipment.

 

Container:
a storage unit that does not have wheels permanently attached to the bottom and is at ground height. Sizes can range from 10-40feet. The most common sizes are 20 feet and 40 feet.

 

"Cost plus" model:
when a freight management company agrees to haul merchandise for a predetermined percentage that is in addition to the freight costs.

 

Cube:
the volume of the shipment or package (length x width x height / 1728).

 

Cross-docking:
When freight is unloaded from one trailer onto a dock and then reloaded onto another trailer that is headed toward the freight's final destination.

 

Decking:
constructing a temporary floor inside a van trailer to maximize loading. Most commonly used in blanket-wrap transportation.

 

Detention:
the charges assessed by the motor carrier when the shipper/receiver holds a truck trailer beyond the free time allowed for loading or unloading. Industry standard in truckload transportation is two hours free.

 

DIMS:
industry slang term used in airfreight to describe the dimensional weight of merchandise.

 

Discharged:
a term used to describe the unloading of containers on a steam ship.

 

DOT:
department of transportation.

 

Driver no touch:
means the same as shipper load (see SLC) and consignee unload.

 

DT:
delivery ticket.

 

E-Track:
vertical rails affixed inside the walls of a trailer on both sides, allowing load bars to be secured to build decking.

 

Expedited shipment:
when the normal transit time of a shipment will not get the merchandise to the destination when needed, and a faster form of transportation is used. Examples of expedited shipments: hot shots, team drivers, and airfreight.

 

Flatbed:
the trailer used by over the road motor carrier, which allows for the transportation of oversized or specialty items that can be exposed to outside conditions.

 

"Flat fee" model:
Charging a client a flat fee for freight management services and acting as a fiduciary to the client, with all benefits and discounts being distributed 100% to the client.

 

FF&E (Furniture, fixtures and equipment):
used generically, it refers to all the soft and hard goods used in outfitting a hotel.

 

Fingerprinting:
a slang term used to describe when the driver of a truck unloads merchandise.

 

Freight bill:
the carrier's invoice for transportation charges applicable to a freight shipment.

 

Freight Claim:
when merchandise is either delivered over, short or damaged and reconciliation must be made with the trucking company for payment of goods.

 

Freight Class:
a number ranging from 50 to 500 that is assigned by the NMFC and used by less than truckload carriers to determine at what rate freight should be charged.

 

Freight Management:
when a 3rd party logistics provider is utilized to negotiate and manage the shipping of all goods, no matter which modes of transportation are necessary to get product there.

 

Fuel surcharge:
an additional charge by carriers to compensate the rising and lowering price of fuel, usually a percentage of an established rate.

 

Gross weight:
the total weight of the vehicle and payload of freight or passengers.

 

Hard or case goods:
hard goods includes such items as upholstered and wooden furniture, televisions, equipment, - case goods includes such items as wood boxed furniture.

 

Hot shots:
slang term used to describe smaller trailers that are utilized in expedited transportation. Usually dock height trucks with two drivers.

 

Illegal dispatch:
when a driver is instructed to drive over the amount of miles/time authorized by the DOT.

 

Inside delivery:
when driver is expected to unload freight and place inside building in predetermined area. This does not include un-cartoning, set up, or installation.

 

Interline:
two or more carriers work together to haul shipments to a destination.

 

Less than truckload (LTL) shipment:
when only part of the loading capacity of a trailer is used.

 

LCL (less than container load):
when not all-loadable space is utilized.

 

Line-haul carrier:
carrier that picks up goods from a region they are domiciled out of, but goods are consigned to an area in which they are not domiciled.

 

NMFC (National Motor Freight Classification system):
a numbering system that is used to determine the rate at which freight charges should be applied according to weight for less than truckload carriers.

 

OS&D (overage, shortage or damage):
also used in the purchasing industry to describe operating supplies and disposables.

 

Pallet:
wooden frame in which goods are stacked on for shipping purposes.

 

Pallet exchange:
when a carrier is expected to bring the amount of pallets with him or her upon pickup and exchange them with the shipper for pallets loaded with freight. Upon unloading the same role is expected with the consignee.

 

"Percentage of total value of goods" model:
when a freight management firm agrees to haul merchandise for a predetermined percentage of the merchandise's costs.

 

Piggyback:
a rail-truck service. A highway trailer is loaded by a shipper and is driven to a rail terminal; transported by train, then offloaded and delivered to the consignee by truck.

 

Prepaid billing:
freight charges paid by shipper or third party.

 

Pup:
small (usually 20') trailer that is utilized by less than truckload carriers. Often, these trailers are hooked together in groups of two or three to ship merchandise from one destination to another.

 

Reefer:
slang term for the refrigerated trailer used by over the road motor carriers, which allow for the transportation of up to 40,000lbs of perishable goods, or 48 to 53 feet of a truck, whichever is greater.

 

Seal:
device equipped with a number applied to doors of a trailer after it is loaded that cannot be removed and reapplied. When a shipment leaves a shipper if a seal is applied, the seal number is noted on the bill of lading by shipper. Upon arrival at consignee, if seal is intact then number must be the same as on the bill of lading to keep the integrity of the load.

 

SLC (Shipper load and count):
shipper is contracted to load and pack truck as well as prepare paperwork.

 

Soft goods:
curtains, carpets, padding, and wallcoverings.

 

Team drivers:
when two drivers are utilized in the cab of one truck so that when the first driver has reached maximum time allowed to drive by law, the second driver can take over while the first driver rests.

 

Truckload:
when the full loading capacity of a trailer is used for shipping product. The most common types of truckload trailers are 53 feet and 48 feet long.

 

Van:
slang term for the trailer used by over the road motor carriers, which allows for the transportation of up to 45,000lbs or 48 to 53 feet of a truck, whichever is greater. Also known as a standard trailer.

 

3rd Party Logistics:
used to describe a company that arranges for the transportation of freight when they are not the manufacturer of goods, nor the owner of goods.

 

3PL:
abbreviation for 3rd party logistics.